From the beginning of the 15th century the city was under the jurisdiction of the Venetian Republic which ruled directly from 1441 to 1509, the year in which Ravenna was conceded to the Church by treaty.
In 1512, during the war of the Holy See, Ravenna was taken by the French and sacked while the citizens suffered a great massacre.
From this time a tumultuous period of civil conflicts followed, pursued by the Rasponi family who had dominion of the city in their sights.
This was followed by a short period of Venetian control and then, with the peace treaty of Cambrai, Ravenna returned to the Church in 1530.
The life of the city under papal government continued without any particular events and it was only during the time of Napoleon that there were invasions by various warring armies.
The French arrived in 1796, then the Austrians, the French again in 1800, the Austrians once more, the English in 1813 and finally, after more upheaval, the return of papal dominion when Napoleon was finally and completely vanquished.
The Napoleonic adventure had raised high hopes in the citizens of Ravenna who reacted against the conservative meanness of the governors and encouraged liberal tensions in Ravenna.
During the uprisings of 1831 it became part of the United Provinces and in 1849 of the Roman Republic which had been largely supported by the people.
In 1859 the city was annexed to the Kingdom of Sardinia and in 1861 it became a province.
Source of data
Giuseppe Bovini, "Ravenna arte e storia" (Verona 1999, Longo pub. Ravenna); Guido Laghi, Giovanni Maiardi, "Ravenna: passato e presente" (Ravenna 1983, Stear pub.).
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